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Android Persistence with preferences and files | App Code for Sale | Preview

Android Persistence with preferences and files | Android Tutorial

This tutorial describes how to save key-value pairs using the preference API in Android. It also explains how to read and write files in Android. It is based on Eclipse 3.7, Java 1.6 and Android 4.1 (Ice Cream Sandwich).

Overview PAGE TOP

This tutorial describes how to save key-value pairs using the preference API in Android. It also explains how to read and write files in Android. It is based on Eclipse 3.7, Java 1.6 and Android 4.1 (Ice Cream Sandwich).

Reference

http://www.vogella.de under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Germany (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) licence.

Android File Based Persistence PAGE TOP

Methods of persistence

Android allows to store local data as files. Android uses file based storage for handling application settings (Preferences) and instances of the SQLite database.

For each application the Android system creates a data/data/package.of.the.application directory.

Files are saved in the files folder and application settings are saved as XML files in the shared_prefs folder.

If your application creates an SQLite database this database is saved in the main application directory under the databases folder.

The following screenshot shows a filesystem which contains file, cache files and preferences.

file3027.png

Only the application can write into its application directory. It can create additional sub-directories in this application directory. For these sub-directories, the application can grant read or write permissions for other applications.

Internal vs. external storage

Android has internal storage and external storage. External storage is not private and may not always be available.

Application on external storage

As of Android 8 SDK level it is possible to define that the application can or should be placed on external storage. For this set the android:installLocation to preferExternal or auto.

In this case certain application components may be stored on an encrypted external mount point. Database and other private data will still be stored in the internal storage system.

Preferences PAGE TOP

API

Android supports the usage of Preferences for persisting key-values pairs in the Android file system.

The definition of Preferences can be done via an XML resource.

The PreferenceManager gives access to the preference values. The following code shows how to access your default preferences.

SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this); 

Values can get accessed via the key of the preference setting.

String username = preferences.getString("username", "n/a"); 

To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() method on the SharedPreferences object. Once you have changed the value you have to call the commit() method to apply your changes.

Editor edit = preferences.edit();
edit.putString("username", "new_value_for_user");
edit.commit(); 

Preference Values

Android allows to create XML fileswhich describes the preferences which should be entered. From this XML file the user interface is automatically generated and the values are stored automatically by Android.

To create such a file, select File → New → Android → Android XML File and select the Preference as Resource Type.

PreferenceFragment

Android provides the PreferenceFragment class which simplifies the creation of an user interface for maintaining preference values. This fragment can load an XML preference definition file via the method addPreferencesFromResource().

Preference Listener

You can listen to changes in the preferences via the registerOnSharedPreferenceChangeListener() method on SharedPreferences.

SharedPreferences prefs = 
    PreferenceManager.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this);

// Instance field for listener
listener = new SharedPreferences.OnSharedPreferenceChangeListener() {
  public void onSharedPreferenceChanged(SharedPreferences prefs, String key) {
    // Your Implementation
  }
};

prefs.registerOnSharedPreferenceChangeListener(listener); 

One watch out is that SharedPreferences keeps listeners in a WeakHashMap hence listener may be recycled if your code does not hold a reference to it. .

Tutorial: Prerequirements PAGE TOP

Using preferences

We will continue using the example project "de.vogella.android.social".

Create an Android XML resource called preferences.xml of the PreferenceScreen type.

preferences10.png

Open the file via right-mouse click and Open with → Android XML Resource Editor. Press Add, add a PreferenceCategory and add two preferences of type EditTextPreferences. They should be called User and Password.

preferences2067.gif

preferences2273.gif

preferences3096.gif

You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField, e.g. the inputMethod.

Add the following attribute to the XML definition of your password field to make the input quoted with *.

android:inputType="textPassword" 

Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity. This Activity will load the preference.xml file and will allow the user to change package de.vogella.android.socialapp;

import android.os.Bundle;
import android.preference.PreferenceActivity;

public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity {
  @Override
  public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
      super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
      addPreferencesFromResource(R.xml.preferences);
  }
}the values.

To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your AndroidManifest.xml file. Select AndroidManifest.xml and the Application tab. Scroll to the bottom of the view and add your new Activity via the Add button.

preferences4066.png

To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity". The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code.

    package de.vogella.android.socialapp;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.content.SharedPreferences;
import android.content.SharedPreferences.Editor;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.preference.PreferenceManager;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuInflater;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.View.OnClickListener;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.Toast;

public class OverviewActivity extends Activity {
  SharedPreferences preferences;
  @Override
  public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
    setContentView(R.layout.main);
    Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.id.Button01);
    // Initialize preferences
    preferences = PreferenceManager.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this);

    button.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {
      public void onClick(View v) {
        String username = preferences.getString("username", "n/a");
        String password = preferences.getString("password", "n/a");
        showPrefs(username, password);
      }
    });

    Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R.id.Button02);
    buttonChangePreferences.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {
      public void onClick(View v) {

        updatePreferenceValue();
      }
    });
  }

  private void showPrefs(String username, String password){
    Toast.makeText(OverviewActivity.this,
        "Input: " + username + " and password: "
            + password, Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();

  }

  private void updatePreferenceValue(){
    Editor edit = preferences.edit();
    String username = preferences.getString("username", "n/a");
    // We will just revert the current user name and save again
    StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer();
    for (int i = username.length() - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
      buffer.append(username.charAt(i));
    }
    edit.putString("username", buffer.toString());
    edit.commit();
    // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the
    // user. We give a little feedback
    Toast.makeText(OverviewActivity.this,
        "Reverted string sequence of user name.",
        Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
  } 

To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() method. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences.

@Override
public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
  MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater();
  inflater.inflate(R.menu.mainmenu, menu);
  return true;
}

// This method is called once the menu is selected
@Override
public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
  switch (item.getItemId()) {
  // We have only one menu option
  case R.id.preferences:
    // Launch Preference activity
    Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity.this, MyPreferencesActivity.class);
    startActivity(i);
    // Some feedback to the user
    Toast.makeText(OverviewActivity.this, "Enter your user credentials.",
      Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
    break;

  }
  return true;
} 

Run

Run your application. Select from your ActionBar the Preference menu entry. You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button. If you press the second button the username should be reversed.

preferences50.png

Android File API PAGE TOP

Overview

Access to the file system is performed via the standard java.io classes.

Android provides also helper classes for creating and accessing new files and directories. For example the getDir(String, int) method would create or access a directory. The openFileInput(String s) method would open a file for input and openFileOutput(String s, int) would create a file.

int specifies the permissions which are:

  • MODE_PRIVATE - No access for other applications
  • MODEWORLDREADABLE - Read access for other applications
  • MODEWORLDWRITABLE - Write access for other applications
  • MODEWORLDREADABLE | MODEWORLDWRITABLE - Read / Write access

The following example shows the API usage.

private void writeFileToInternalStorage() {
  String eol = System.getProperty("line.separator");
  BufferedWriter writer = null;
  try {
    writer = new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(openFileOutput("myfile", MODE_WORLD_WRITEABLE)));
    writer.write("This is a test1." + eol);
    writer.write("This is a test2." + eol);
  } catch (Exception e) {
      e.printStackTrace();
  } finally {
    if (writer != null) {
    try {
      writer.close();
    } catch (IOException e) {
      e.printStackTrace();
    }
    }
  }
} 

private void readFileFromInternalStorage() {
  String eol = System.getProperty("line.separator");
  BufferedReader input = null;
  try {
    input = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(openFileInput("myfile")));
    String line;
    StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer();
    while ((line = input.readLine()) != null) {
    buffer.append(line + eol);
    }
  } catch (Exception e) {
     e.printStackTrace();
  } finally {
  if (input != null) {
    try {
    input.close();
    } catch (IOException e) {
      e.printStackTrace();
    }
    }
  }
} 

How to access a shared file

Another application can access a file, which has been created with the MODEWORLDREADABLE model. For this, it need to knows the package and file name. The following example shows this.

FileInputStream openFileInput = createPackageContext("the_package", 0).openFileInput("thefile"); 

External storage

Android supports also access to an external storage system e.g. the SD card. All files and directories on the external storage system are readable for all applications with the correct permission.

To read from external storage your application need to have the android.permission.READEXTERNALSTORAGE permission.

To write to the external storage system your application needs the android.permission.WRITEEXTERNALSTORAGE permission. You get the path to the external storage system via the Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory() method.

Via the following method call you can check the state of the external storage system. If the Android device is connected via USB to a computer, a SD card which might be used for the external storage system is not available.

Environment.getExternalStorageState().equals(Environment.MEDIA_MOUNTED) 

The following shows an example for reading from the external storage system.

private void readFileFromSDCard() {
  File directory = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory();
  // Assumes that a file article.rss is available on the SD card
  File file = new File(directory + "/article.rss");
  if (!file.exists()) {
    throw new RuntimeException("File not found");
  }
  Log.e("Testing", "Starting to read");
  BufferedReader reader = null;
  try {
    reader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(file));
    StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder();
    String line;
    while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
      builder.append(line);
    }
  } catch (Exception e) {
    e.printStackTrace();
  } finally {
    if (reader != null) {
      try {
        reader.close();
      } catch (IOException e) {
        e.printStackTrace();
      }
    }
  }
} 
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    tons pierced.They went along to a local tattoo as well as piercing establishment and went on turns acquiring their innovative holes.There were one or two things these people never stopped to take into account.From cleaning up to expansion their stomach buttons only took them on a serious journey!

    Cleaning

    The girl who performed my wife's piercing instructed her how to always keep it thoroughly clean and exempt from infection.She was careful to clean and nurture the piercing as instructed.Sadly her waist button still became contaminated.It appeared to be red and inflamed, but after carefully dealing with it the infection cleared and even she has been now very happy with typically the piercing.

    Nonetheless, anytime your lover changed the stud and / or moved it excessive it might become taken over again and even she would need to start through out.Eventually this infections were being all gone and your lady could proceed and appreciate her stomach area button piercing.It had been fun in order to buy other jewelry for her stomach button piercing rather than things prefer necklaces as well as earrings.

    Pregnancy

    When your lover became with child we realized she possessed never looked at what she ought of do about their belly call.After diverse advice she made a decision to remove any piercing and also hope a hole is there as soon as the baby was born.After seven months connected with no studs with her belly button that hole acquired closed.If your lover wanted this belly ring back she were required to return for the new 1.

    She made a decision to get re-pierced.It absolutely was more challenging and took slightly longer versus first an individual, due to a certain amount of scar tissue.It seemed to be done in addition to she was delighted to get her piercing for a second time.

    Concerning five ages later, the lady became currently pregnant again.Now there was little doubt what she ought of do.she received become attached with the stomach ring not to mention was holding it pierced it doesn't matter how ludicrous it gazed.Once again she had been mistaken from what the results would become.As this months went by and the woman's belly additional the pin getting larger and more prominent.After distribution she seemed to be left using a large target where my best cute small piercing was previously.

    This time period after the woman pregnancy was over she decided not to have the girl bellybutton pierced once again.She seemed to be somewhat frustrated that she was required to say goodbye to her cool little piercing.Yet, sometimes factors become a lot and nothing is to achieve but throw in the towel.She had developed, but you may still find times I check out her stomach button longingly considering that I enjoyed reading the stomach ring much too, it seemed to be fun having her gut button pierced and I actually enjoyed to be able to buy their special jewelry intended for her stomach.

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